龙胆草的基本介绍

龙胆草,(拉丁文名:Gentiana scabra Bunge.);原名:龙胆;别名:胆草、草龙胆、山龙胆, 龙胆科龙胆属多年生草本。常见中药,入药部位为干燥根及根茎。

形态特征

龙胆草为多年生草本,高1-2尺。叶对生,下部叶2-3对很小,呈现鳞片状,中部和上部叶披针形,表面暗绿色,背面淡绿色,有三条明显叶脉,无叶柄。花生于枝梢或近梢的叶腋间,开蓝色筒状钟形花。果实长椭圆形稍扁,成熟后二瓣开裂,种子多数,很小。根茎短,簇生多数细长根,淡黄棕色或淡黄色。

根茎平卧或直立,短缩或长达5厘米,具多数粗壮、略肉质的须根。花枝单生,直立,长4-6毫米,先端分离,中部以下连合成筒状抱茎;中、上部叶近革质,无柄,卵形或卵状披针形至线状披针形,长2-7厘米,宽2-3厘米,有时宽仅约0.4厘米,愈向茎上部叶愈小,先端急尖,基部心形或圆形,边缘微外卷,粗糙,上面密生极细乳突,下面光滑,叶脉3-5条,在上面不明显,在下面突起,粗糙。

花多数,簇生枝顶和叶腋;无花梗;每朵花下具2个苞片,苞片披针形或线状披针形,花冠蓝紫色,有时喉部具多数黄绿色斑点,筒状钟形,长4-5厘米,裂片卵形或卵圆形,长7-9毫米,先端有尾尖,全缘,褶偏斜,狭三角形,长3-4毫米,先端急尖或2浅裂;雄蕊着生冠筒中部,整齐,花丝钻形,长9-12毫米,花药狭矩圆形,长3.5-4.5毫米;花果期5-11月。

生长环境

该植物是一种高山植物,性喜潮湿凉爽气候,野生于山区、坡地、林绿及灌木丛中。在植物整个生长季节,温度是相当高的。北京地区引种后,一直生长良好。地势高燥与 阳光直接照射的地方和土壤过粘、贫瘠的地区不宜栽培。龙胆喜肥,在结合深耕土地时,每亩应施入充分腐熟的厩肥8000斤左右。每年4月中旬萌发,8月开花,花期8-9月,果实9月成熟。全年生长期180-210天左右。

分布范围

生长在山坡草地、路边、河滩、灌丛中、林缘及林下、草甸,海拔400-3000米。产地分布在内蒙古、黑龙江、吉林、辽宁、贵州,陕西、湖北、湖南、安徽、江苏、浙江、福建、广东、广西等地。苏联、朝鲜、日本也有分布。

品种分类

原名:龙胆,别名:胆草、草龙胆、山龙胆,拉丁文名:Gentiana scabra Bunge. 被子植物门;双子叶植物纲;捩花目;龙胆科、;龙胆属;龙胆。

繁殖方法

种子及分株繁殖。种子繁殖 可分秋播和春播两种。秋播:一般在11月播种,翌年春萌芽。为了播种均匀,于种子中混入适量细沙或腐殖质,采用条播。春播:应事先进行沙藏处理,即将种子采下后与 细沙1:3混合,保持一定的湿度,埋在室外,经冬季低温影响,然后取出播种,条播行距1-1.3尺,株距0.7-1尺,覆土2-3分。每亩播种量3-4两。分株繁殖多在早春4月上旬,芽尚未出土前进行,将根全部掘出,分成小簇,每簇应有1-2个小芽,然后按行距1.3尺,株距0.7-1尺栽植,勿使芽露出土面,以免被风吹干。

主要价值

药用部位:植物的根和根茎。

功效分类:清热药。

龙胆草为龙胆科多年生草本植物条叶龙胆等的根和茎,主产东北地区,春、秋二季均可采收,以秋采者质量为佳。根及根茎入药。味苦,性寒,功专清热燥湿。其泻肝胆实火作用甚强,并可息风止痉止痛。

龙胆草是我国传统中药,据《本草纲目》记载:“性味苦,涩,大寒,无毒。主治骨间寒热、惊病邪气,继绝伤,定五脏,杀虫毒。”等功效,下面我们来详细了解下。
添加时间:2018年01月22日 更新时间:2018年01月22日

龙胆草种植技术

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龙胆草为常用中药材,应用历史悠久,是清热燥湿、泻肝胆火之要药。我国多地均有大规模引种,下面我们来了解下龙胆草是怎样种植的。
添加时间:2018年01月22日 更新时间:2018年01月22日

龙胆草的资料

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添加时间:2018年01月22日 更新时间:2018年01月22日

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