基本介绍

黑心菊,学名:黑心金光菊(RudbeckiahirtaL.)。菊科,金光菊属,一二年生草本。花心隆起,紫褐色,周边瓣状小花金黄色。原产北美东部地区,耐寒性不强,我国华中地区以南可秋播或露地越冬。花期长,从夏初到霜降,花色艳丽,是切花的好材料。

形态特征

黑心菊菊科金光菊属,一二年生,株高60-100cm,头状花序8-9cm,重瓣花,舌状花黄色,有时有棕色黄带,管状花暗棕色。茎较粗壮,被软毛,稍分枝,具翼。互生叶粗糙,长椭圆形至狭披针形,长10~15cm,叶基下延至茎呈翼状,羽状分裂,5-7裂,茎生叶3-5裂,边缘具稀锯齿。

全株被毛,近根出叶,上部叶互生,叶匙形及阔披针形,叶缘具粗齿。头状花序,径约2.5~5cm,伞房状着生,具短梗;舌状花中性,长1.5~2cm,黄色、褐紫色或具两色条纹;管状花褐色至紫色,密集成圆球形;春秋播,花期横跨夏季至秋季,耐寒耐旱,管理粗放,丛植片植,公路绿化,花坛花境,草地边植。也可作切花,露地越冬,能自播繁殖。

繁殖技术

播种繁殖

黑心菊的播种时间一般在春秋两季。春季3月和秋季9月为自然生长的最佳播种时间。播种时间与它的自然花期关系密切,春季3月播种,6月至7月开花,秋季9月播种,11月定植上盆,翌年春季开花(5月至6月)。为保证其植株健壮,花大色艳,应于播种后长出4片至5片叶时进行一次移植。11月份定植。可露地越冬。

分株繁殖

春秋两季均可进行,一般对多年生老株进行分株。

扦插繁殖

一般选择根部萌生的新芽做插穗,春季或秋季均可进行。春季应待萌芽抽生至15cm左右时进行,秋季于花后根际萌孽后进行。

品种分类

【玛亚系列】:株高45-50厘米,是世界上第一个矮生重瓣紧凑型黑心菊,全重瓣花丰富了夏秋季的表现,茎杆强壮,花径9-12厘米,黄色的明亮大花挺直开放。玛亚的群集种植就如同一块有明快色彩的网球场,它的出色户外表现为它获得了金奖。在园林应用中玛亚还可以作为大型盆栽或混栽中的主花来安排。

【多多系列】:株高30-38厘米,株型极紧凑,分枝多,开花早,极适宜于10-12厘米盆栽。多多金黄色、多多柠檬黄、多多暗红全都因它们的美丽形象与丰富的夏秋季持久开花获得了全欧大奖。5-7厘米的漂亮圆形花在任何地方种植都能有优秀的表现。三个独立的花色在多多混色中有较均匀的分配。在园林应用中多多是区域种植、组合盆栽、庭院种植的绝佳选择。

【琐呐系列】:株高45-50厘米,花色独特,在明亮的金黄色花瓣上有一圈巨大的褐红色花环。花型巨大,花径达12-15厘米,因具有独特的花色,使琐呐在零售市场成为有影响力的品系,而且在花园种植中很快成为优胜者。

【科多系列】:株高45-50厘米,象多多系列一样分枝极好。花色美丽,在金黄色的花瓣上有着一圈红色花环,因其具有很好的分枝习性和多花性,在花园种植中很有吸引力。

【金太阳系列】:株高70-80厘米,花型巨大,在金黄色的花瓣上有着浅黄色的花尖,花心绿色。独特的花色和强健的生长习性,在任何公园种植中都表现优异。

【秋色系列】:株高50-60厘米,花径12厘米。具有鲜明的秋天的花色:铜色花瓣、红色花环、锈红色花心等,和其他黄色的黑心菊品系形成了极具吸引力的对比。很适合古典花坛种植。在园林应用中可与其他花坛植物混种或装饰草地;

【甜点系列】:株高60-70厘米,花径10厘米,深色花心,金橙色花瓣,在任何环境中种植,都使人感到很温暖。

【金锁系列】:株高60-70厘米,橙色花,花径10厘米,全重瓣。

【戴西系列】:株高75厘米,花径12-15厘米,是全重瓣的金黄色花,花型似雏菊。

主要价值

【园林应用】

花朵繁盛,适合庭院布置,花境材料,或布置草地边缘成自然式栽植。

黑心菊新品系在欧洲是获奖品种,曾获得AASWinner及FleuroselectAwards。这些品系可提供品种的多样性,为客户提供了多种优秀的选择,可作窗台植物、公园盆栽、区域种植或作背景植物,也可作为主花种植或大量集中栽培。它们具有如下杰出的优点:

具有亮丽的色彩,极大的提高了外观吸引力。

2.持续开花的时间非常长,增加了销售机会。

3.在欧洲园林是获奖品种,它们的优异特性已得到公认。

4.生长习性与成花形式有广泛的选择,这样具有了广泛使用的可能性。

5.抗热耐久,增加了消费满意度。

黑心菊常见的园林美化植物,常用作窗台植物、公园盆栽或背景植物,也可作为切花材料,但如果染上病害就会让它的观赏性大打折扣,那么,当黑心菊遇到病虫害该怎么办呢?本文为大家详细讲解。
添加时间:2018年02月02日 更新时间:2018年02月03日

黑心菊的资料

浏览:92
添加时间:2018年02月02日 更新时间:2018年02月02日
黑心菊,全名黑心金光菊,一二年生草本。花心隆起,紫黑色,周边瓣状小花金黄色,赏心悦目。可观赏花期长达半年,自初夏至降霜,也可用作切花材料。今天小编就来给大家讲解黑心菊的种植方法。
添加时间:2018年02月02日 更新时间:2018年02月03日

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