基本介绍

知母,干燥根状茎为著名中药,性苦寒,有滋阴降火、润燥滑肠、利大小便之效。属清热下火药,主治:温热病、高热烦渴、咳嗽气喘、燥咳、便秘、骨蒸潮热、虚烦不眠、消渴淋浊。有“毛知母”与“知母肉”之分。最主要产区在河北。中药别名:兔子油草、大芦水、妈妈草、蒜瓣子草、羊胡子根、地参等。

形态特征

知母(拉丁学名:Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge)也叫毛知母,多年生草本植物,根状茎,叶由基部丛生细长披针形,花茎自叶丛中长出,圆柱形直立,总状花絮,成簇,生在顶部成穗状;花粉红色,淡紫色至白色;果实长椭圆形,内有多数黑色种子,花果期6~9月。

生长习性

生长习性:春季萌发生长,立冬节令枝叶枯萎,采挖其地下串生肉根。

一年生或多年生草本野生植物,原生在剑川海拔2000米以上的背阴湿润沙土地带,土著白语名称“根栽子”(gen zai zi),植株高120至160厘米左右,株干呈四梭形,节间相距约2厘米,每节长4片叶、呈十字形对生,叶基部环绕株干开芝麻花形白色絮状,不结籽,植物 分类学归于唇形科地瓜属。

地理分布

知母适应性强,喜阴、耐湿、耐寒、不怕瘠薄,生命力极强,多生于向阳干燥的山坡、丘陵草丛或草原地带,常成群生长。

栽培:知母主产河北省安国市(安国市和博野县两个种植基地迅速向周边县扩散,定州、深泽、安平、里县,其中河北博野的杜各庄、徐营、屯庄三个自然村最为集中。)、安徽省亳州市(亳州知母主要种植在谯城区十九里镇马老家一带,赵桥、十八里、五马、谯东等乡镇也有种植。),形成了中国知名的两个种植基地。

野生:毛知母主产地河北张北、易县、赤城、来源、阜平;山西榆社、五台、代县、寿阳;内蒙古扎鲁特旗、西乌珠穆、东台珠穆、林西、科尔左中旗、阿荣旗;辽宁铁岭、阜新等地亦有分布。

主要价值

食用价值

地参根茎如虫草,性味甘凉,功能补虚,清热解毒。可与鸡同煲,又可熟油温炸、体积可迅速膨胀,参条内白外黄,松脆可口、回味清香,乃佐餐下酒滋补佳品。

地参春夏可采摘嫩茎叶,凉拌、炒食、做汤均可,主要食用晚秋以后采挖出的洁白脆嫩的环形肉质参。地参根茎观之洁白如玉,食之清爽脆嫩,可炒食、蒸煮、做汤、腌渍、醋泡、糖浸、蜜饯、做酱菜均可。.与鸡或排骨等肉类炖熟,是一道营养极好的佳肴还可制成蔬菜礼盒、果脯、罐头、饮料、含片和各种营养品的添加剂,其加工潜力极大。

药用价值

性味:苦,寒。

归经:入肺、胃、肾经。

功能主治:滋阴降火,润燥滑肠。治烦热消渴,骨蒸劳热,肺热咳嗽,大便燥结,小便不利。

①用于温热病,邪热亢盛、壮热、烦渴、脉洪大等肺胃实热证。知母有清热泻火除烦的作用。与石膏配伍有协同之效,如白虎汤。

②用于肺热咳嗽或阴虚燥咳、痰稠等证。本品有清泻肺火,滋阴润肺之效,常与贝母同用以清肺化痰止咳,即二母散。

③用于阴虚火旺,肺肾亏所致的骨节蒸潮热、盗汗、心烦等症。知母有滋阴降火的作用。常同黄柏相须为用,配入养阴药中,如知柏地黄丸。

在我国中药名是比较好认的,很多中药的名字都与生活息息相关。今天就给大家讲解下中药知母的功效与作用,千万别错过了!
添加时间:2018年02月06日 更新时间:2018年02月13日
知母具有清热、除烦、滋阴等功效。近年来,全国各地都有引种栽培。以山西和河北栽培产量最大,以易县产的“西陵知母”为最著名。下面给大家介绍知母的栽培技术。
添加时间:2018年02月06日 更新时间:2018年02月13日

知母的资料

浏览:104
添加时间:2018年02月06日 更新时间:2018年02月06日

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