形态特征

桑树为乔木或灌木,高度3-10米,最高可达15米,胸径最大可达50厘米以上,树皮厚,呈灰色,具不规则浅纵裂;叶卵形或广卵形,长5-15厘米,基部圆形至浅心形,边缘锯齿粗钝,有时叶为各种分裂,表面鲜绿色,无毛,背面沿脉有疏毛,脉腋有簇毛;花单性,腋生或生于芽鳞腋内,与叶同时生出;聚花果卵状椭圆形,长1-2.5厘米,成熟时红色或暗紫色。花期4-5月,果期5-8月。

生长习性及分布

桑树喜温暖湿润气候,稍耐荫。气温12℃以上开始萌芽,生长适宜温度25-30℃,超过40℃则受到抑制,降到12℃以下则停 止生长。耐旱,不耐涝,耐瘠薄。对土壤的适应性强。

原产中国中部和北部,现由东北至西南各省区,西北直至新疆均有栽培。朝鲜、 日本、蒙古、中亚各国、俄罗斯、欧洲等地以及印度、越南亦均有栽培。

主要变种

鲁桑(Morus alba L. var.multicaulis(Perrott.) Loud.),该种与桑的区别在于叶大而厚,叶长可达30厘米,表面泡状皱缩;聚花果圆筒状,长1.5-2厘米,成熟时白绿色或紫黑色。因叶大,肉厚多汁,为家蚕的良好饲料。中国江苏、浙江、四川及陕西等地均有栽培。

繁殖方法

种子

采收紫色成熟桑椹,搓去果肉,洗净种子,随即播种或湿砂贮藏。春播、夏播、秋播均可。夏播、秋播可用当年新种子。播前用50℃温水浸种,待自然冷却后,再浸泡12小时,放湿砂中贮藏催芽,经常保持湿润,待种皮破裂露白时即可播种,按行株距20-30厘米开沟,沟深1厘米,每1小时米2用种量7.5-15千克。覆土。约经10天出苗。苗高3-4厘米间苗,去弱留强,并补苗。春、秋季按株距10-15厘米定苗。

嫁接

袋接法,于嫁接前20d剪接穗,湿沙贮藏,使砧木剪口处的皮层和木质部分离成袋状,然后插入接穗,以插紧为止。芽接,春、夏季用T形芽接或管状芽接(套接)。

压条

早春将母株横伏固定于地面,埋入沟中,露出顶端,培土压实,待生根后与母体分离。春或秋季进行定植。按行、株距2米×0.4米开穴,穴径0.5-0.7米,穴底施入腐熟厩肥,上铺薄土一层,栽入,填表土后,将植株向上提一提,使根部舒展,再填心土,压实,浇水。

植物文化

中国古代人民有在房前屋后栽种桑树和梓树的传统,因此常把“桑梓”代表故土、家乡。

桑树叶在深秋霜降之后采摘最好,其药用价值较高,也可以在4月份枝叶茂盛的时候进行采摘,数量不要过多可以拿来当做备用,采摘之后需要用清水清洗干净然后晾晒成片装入袋中储藏即可。
添加时间:2019年01月09日 更新时间:2019年01月09日
采桑一般是春季的农事,多是去进行桑叶的采摘来养蚕,但是后来深秋霜降期也可进行桑叶的采摘,此时主要是为了制作桑叶茶。春季采摘桑叶要注意早晚采摘,不可采摘午时桑叶和雨叶,秋
添加时间:2018年12月17日 更新时间:2018年12月17日
桑葚小伙伴们就吃得多了,作为桑葚的载体的桑树你又了解多少呢?今天小编就来给大家科普下桑树的种植技术。
添加时间:2018年02月26日 更新时间:2018年02月27日
说起桑叶,人们第一时间往往会想到蚕,因为桑叶是蚕的主食,待蚕长大后结茧就可以收获蚕丝了。其实桑叶不仅仅可以给蚕宝宝吃,人类也是可以拿来泡水喝或做食用菜,下面我们来了解下桑叶泡水喝有什么作用。
添加时间:2018年02月26日 更新时间:2018年03月02日
中所周知,桑叶主要的作用是用来喂蚕,却很少人知道桑叶其实也是一味中药,那么桑叶到底有什么作用呢?下面我们一起来了解下!
添加时间:2018年02月26日 更新时间:2018年02月26日

桑树的资料

浏览:1053
添加时间:2018年02月26日 更新时间:2018年02月26日

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